Societies and trade
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people hunt, fish and gather food, which is shared between all members of the language group|
The community structure and social aspects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture is complex. It is important to understand that social relationships and structures of communities in Aboriginal language groups are quite different to those in Torres Strait Islander language groups. The relationships within and between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still strong today. Each clan, through their tribal laws has responsibilities for specific tracts of land and sea country. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups consist of one or more families, which creates the basic economic unit of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies.
Certain ceremonies and rituals can draw groups together from different areas. Trade, marriages, initiations and other ceremonies mean that some language groups form political and trade alliances. In the past some language groups would sometimes go to war with each other and the dynamics in some areas would mean alliances between groups changed and developed over many thousands of years.
In the past, the social structure between language groups had an influence on many aspects life including:
- which groups could trade with each other
- the places where groups could pass across each others territorial boundaries
- the places where meetings and ceremonies were held
- which person was chosen to provide the cross-cultural link between language groups.
Anything done within an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander group would be done for the benefit of the group. Hunting, fishing and gathering of food still occurs in groups and the food is shared between all members of the language group. The position of a person within the social structures determines which member of the group gets served first and which member gets the best type of food.
Important members, usually elders within the language group, would deal with individual behaviour that was destructive to the organisation and social wellbeing of the language group. This would be made known throughout the whole language group in order to ensure other individuals did not repeat the behaviour. Tribal punishment could be inflicted and still occurs today. Some cultural ceremonies that are practiced are sensitive in nature and some are very sacred; these should not be discussed without a local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person being present.
Travel and trade
|Aboriginal people use bull roarers, like this one, in initiation ceremonies|
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people travelled through the Great Barrier Reef using canoes and outriggers for trade, warfare or to collect resources. As maritime hunters and gatherers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are skilled navigators using the wind and the constellations as well as their intricate knowledge of the marine environment to guide them on their journeys.
Nomadic Aboriginal people of the Whitsunday Islands, the Ngaro, built sturdy three-piece bark canoes that were capable of open sea journeys. Evidence suggests that there were trade links between coastal and hinterland Aboriginal people of the region. Torres Strait Islanders also travelled through the Reef's waters for trade, using their knowledge of the sea to cover vast distances in their outrigger canoes. Traditional connections exist with the outer islands of the Great Barrier Reef where resources such as bird and turtle eggs, bird droppings (used for fertilising garden beds), turtles and feathers were collected.
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people still use their natural environment, like making fire with this stick|
Intricate trade networks and barter of resources were commonplace amongst societies and essential in providing Indigenous groups with their necessities. Mainland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people traded with each other as well as with visiting parties from both the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea. Historical records also document Torres Strait Islanders trading turtle shell and pearl shell for iron and steel products with Europeans. The trade network into and out of the Torres Strait with Papua New Guinean residents is well known and is recognised under the Torres Strait Treaty. The Treaty allows traditional trade to continue and includes the exchange of items such as Kundu Drums, snake skins, mats, spears of bamboo, wood carvings, sea shells, fish, crab, dugong or turtle meat, yams and other things.